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March 9, 2018


The LSD ( Lysergic acid Diethylamide) is a psychotropic hallucinogenic. Its active principle is a derivative of the rye ergot. It is one of the central nervous system disruptors. The use of this substance is prohibited everywhere.

History of the LSD:

The LSD was synthesized for the first time on 16th November 1938 at the Sandoz laboratories, in Bazel (Switzerland) by the chemists Arthur Stoll and Albert Hoffmann. On 19th April 1943, Hoffmann decided to experiment the effects of the LSD on himself. This was called the “bicycle ride”. Indeed, because of the war, cars were taken away so he went home by bicycle. Starting to panic, he drank milk, thinking he was poisoned. He described a state of anxiety and decorporation. But the doctor who inspected him only identified a mydriasis ( a dilatation of the pupils).            As early as 1951, an ancient US secret agent, Alfred Hubbard found interest in the LSD and showed its effects to the writer Aldous Huxley in 1955. He became a doctor and opened a clinic to cure people with LSD.

In the middle of the 1950’s, many articles relating to the LSD started to spread, considering it as a “miraculous drug”. So the use of this psychotropic began getting out of the medical framework.     This was the turning point that created the American counterculture. People of that time were from what we call the “beat generation”, then called the “hippies”.

The American counterculture:

It is a time period characterized by McCarthysm, the liberation of drug subjects and homosexuality, also the Vietnam war and the hippie movement.

This movement started in the 1950’s with the Beatnik movement also associated with hippies. This is a movement against the prejudices of the middle class, and the taboos of sex and drugs. Hippies organized parties where drugs were extolled.

The use:

It’s mostly taken orally with:

  • a small blotting paper decorated with many psychedelic drawings.
  • little drops in a tube
  • a piece of sugar
  • gelatin (called “gelat”)
  • a microtip ( LSD in a gastrosoluble wrap)

The effects:

The first effects are felt 30 or 90 minutes after the take. They depend on the feeling and the state of mind of the user. If he is anxious before taking this substance, he will have what is called a “bad trip”.

  • hallucinations
  • troubled perceptions of colors
  • paranoia sometimes
  • mydriasis (dilataion of the pupils)
  • hyperglycemia
  • euphoria
  • laughters
  • acceleration of the cardiac rythm
  • pilo-erection
  • hyperthermia (sweat)
  • synesthesia
  • it also makes the user reflect easily, faster
  • sensation of superpower, overkilling

The descent:

Once the effects vanished comes now the descent. It is characterized by tiredness, depressive symptoms.

Sometimes, it can enhance schyzophrenia on people affected by this illness, or create serious and durable psychatric accidents.

The LSD acts on the connection between the neurons and the central nervous system. It affects the regulation of many neurotransmitters. The molecules of LSD stick on the neuroreceptors of serotonin which explains the modified perception of the colors.

It also disrupts the ways of regulation of the glutamate, increasing it, which causes a real acceleration of the reflection. Then, it increases also the production of dopamin which creates a sensation of euphoria.

To conclude, LSD was at first considered as a medicinal product, but given its disastrous side effects, it has been banned by law because too dangerous. Will we soon discover that a daily product is going to face the same faith?



After Mary, Jane the (new) virgin?

March 7, 2018

The protagonist of The CW TVshow Jane The Virgin: Jane Villanueva performed by Gina Rodriguez is a virgin not like the others.

She saw her life collapsed into a real telenovela. What would better fit her latino origins?  Thus, from Hispanic emigration, she lives with her mum and grandmother who is really pious whereas her mother Xiomara is an eternal child, switching partners as often as high heels. Jane follows literary studies to become a love story writer and the infernal trio, like real best friends, offers their life with no hypocrisy but a comic simplicity. This TV show dealing with common problems makes us put into perspective and escape from our humdrum routine. To watch with family or friends, or even on your own with an icecream; it is a delight to get a break and to relax. With a heavy-handed humour but just enough to make us light hearted.

Now let’s focus on the heart of the subject: the  mysterious title.  As a matter of fact Jane gets a perfect straight way of life and she keeps her beliefs; indeed she swore to keep her purity until marriage and never to get sexual activities until that moment. That is how we can understand how shoked she was when she discovered her pregnancy a few weeks before her wedding. Mixing police affair in the high Californian society, and family gossip, between hatred and love, upon sex and death, this  series inspired by a Venezuelian telenovela keeps us out of breath with  its suspense, and brings to tears out of sadness if not joy.

Nominated at the Golden Globes in 2015, waiting for the end of the fourth season to come on our screens; we definitely can say that Jane the Virgin is already a phenomenon in the USA close to spreading to the entire world. For instance in France it surpassed the audience of channels such as Gulli or France O. Moreover the appearance of celebrities such as Britney Spears or Eva Longoria, Tyler Posey increases the popularity of that TV show and you can be sure you will find some of your favorite actresses in it!


Bouillon Chartier, a place to go

February 20, 2018

Instead of going to McdDonald’s with your friends when you don’t know where to eat, rather go to Bouillon Chartier !

Aka Chartier; Chartier is one of those typical restaurants of Paris, a must for Parisians and for tourists. “cheap ( you can eat for 12 euros), beautiful, warm place, delicious”; here are the comments we hear at the exit of the restaurant.

Chartier was a place to eat, a mix between a canteen and a restaurant, which was created in 1896. At that time, the aim of Chartier was to offer to the customers (who were mostly workers) meals of good quality for a cheap price, and it hasn’t changed until now. Since you’re seated, you are served fastly in 5 minutes. Waiters don’t use notebooks for your order, they write it directly on paper tablecloth! It’s a very loud but very convivial place. All courses and desserts are French traditional ones, such as duck with potatoes, sauerkraut, profiteroles…

The area is in the Art Nouveau style of the 19th century. There are classy waiters, beautiful lights, high ceiling, you feel like you have done a journey back in time. This place looks like a set of cinema, and some movies were indeed shot here, like recently the scene in the film Qu’est-ce qu’on a fait au bon dieu ? when the girl presents her lover to her parents for the first time.

After having lunch or dinner, you can continue your journey back in time and have a walk in the district around the place. Then you cross through the Panoramas, which are covered streets with beautiful little shops. For example, you can enter the candy shop in which you can eat the best caramel ever.

Address : 7 Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, in the 9th borough of Paris, next to the subway Station Bonne Nouvelle; Chartier is a restaurant in which you can take a break after visiting the Garnier Opéra and cross the Hausmann street.  If you want to try it, you have to come early because now the restaurant is famous and you take the risk of queueing up.

GoodPlanet Foundation

February 18, 2018

The foundation GoodPlanet opened in 2005 at the Domaine de Longchamp, Paris: this is a huge place lost in the woods where everybody can enjoy a pretty garden, with a lot of work of art.

We visited this foundation a few months ago and were completely moved by this huge testimony of mankind.

“When you enter the foundation, you feel like you’re in a private mansion” Kim said.

Trees as far as the eye can see which hide a huge and bushy forest, white gravel path, and at the end, a beautiful white castle few stairs. Next to the house, a little café, a clearing and at high tower; still another way to be dive in Middle Age. In a word, this area is a true paradise : the architecture and the garden are splendid. And for good reasons, this castle was the house of  Hausmann few centuries ago.

The owner of the place: Yann Arthus Bertrand, a famous ecologist and French reporter who decided to devote his life to ecology and humanism. All his life he has traveled all around the world, with his camera to film the Earth seen from the sky for example. Moreover, he is interested in gardening, animal treatment, recycling, music (a place is dedicated to the musical instruments of the world) and meditation.

In 2005, he decided to dedicate this place to his work as ecologist, reporter and humanist: the entrance is free, you give what you want to help the foundation.Thanks to the creation of the foundation, Bertrand could materialize his project and make them known to everyone.

The aim of the foundation is to raise awareness of  how the humans destroy the Earth and how we can fix it by being more responsible and sensitive to the ecologist action.

Indeed, inside the foundation, you can see some worrying statistics about the education in the world, deforestation, women cause, dictatorship, access to drinkable water and so on.

Recently, he exposed his “behind the scenes” or cut scenes of his recent movie HUMANa movie that you can watch freely on Youtube.

HUMAN is a documentary which deals with people’s lives from every place in the world. Journalists traveled more than 2 years to collect testimonies from women, men, but also mothers, children, criminals, taxi drivers etc. They are talking about their life experience and touchy subjects such as homophobia, poverty, women conditions, global warming, war… Everybody is interviewed against a black backdrop so everybody is on an equal footing; the only thing that we know about people are their name, age and nationality.

The aim of this project is to show the diversity of the world, cultures, religions, people, by talking about environment, justice, science and also agriculture. 

(Here is a link to see a short interview about Yann Arthus Betrand’s project :

A construction was created to illustrate this huge testimony : the Bing Bang is made of pieces of wood to symbolically represent the diversity of the population.

This piece of wood, made by Étienne KRÄHENBÜHL is also a musical instrument. People can touch it, shake it, compress it in order to make this piece of art breathe. The suspencion enlarges itself, shrinks itself to create everytime a different sound, a different melody.

Jeanne and Kimberley

The sign language in France

February 16, 2018

Sign language is a popular language but it was recognized only a few decades ago. Thanks to the linguist William Stokoe, the sign language is now considered as an official language; knowing that, a sign language belongs to each country.

In France, there are between 45 and 60 sign languages. Indeed this language was created unofficially. That’s why people all around the country, who suffered from deafness, created by themselves, a language. Through the 18th century, religious people taught to deaf kids sign language. Pedro Ponce de Leon was the major teacher of this particular language. In 1880, the Milano Congress decided to abandon the sign language at school. This is how the Verb pervaded everything at the expense of the Deaf Community. However, sign language didn’t disappear : people continued to learn it ‘’illegaly’’. Thus, we quickly unsderstand that there are as many sign languages as deaf communities.

In 1960, the American scientist Stokoe wrote the first sign language dictionary. Since May 68, the condition of the deaf community has changed:  Congress and an Association have been created such as the UNISDA (Union Nationale pour l’Intégration Sociale des Déficients Auditifs). Moreover in 1992 the International Visual Theater was founded to teach the sign language. Thus, the political question of the deaf community is little by little making progress. French deaf understand quickly that in other countries, such as in the USA, deaf people have more rights and all the country is open-minded and aware of deafness. In France, as all around the world, peolple have started to talk about it through movies, documentary, articles… :

Among the movies or documentaries leading to the awakening of the population to  the Deaf Community, we can quote:

The documentary Le Pays des sourds, by Nicolas Phillibertin 1982

More rencently the movie La famille Belier by Éric Lartigau in 2014

Or the American series Switched at Birth which deals with social inequalities and handicap

All around the world, the situation of deaf  improves. We talk about the community through books, series …

In 1991,Henri Wittmann decided to classify the sign language.

Between 1980 and 1995, a dozen of countries recognized the sign language as an official language. Among them the USA, Portugal, Brazil, Algeria, Spain…
Since 2008, you can take the option sign language for the bac in France. In 2014, this option seduced more than 1300 people.

Through this article, I have spoken about the sign language but it’s not the only way to communicate with a deaf. You have also the LCP aka the Cued Speech which is used originally for babies. It’s a labial reading of the language, you sign the consonant of the word.

Little by little, step by step, the deaf community and the sign language is recognized not only as a handicap but also as a community and a culture.

I hope I have taught you a bit about this unknown culture.


Black Mirror

February 14, 2018

Black Mirror is a TV series which was released in 2011 by Charlies Brooker by Netflix.

You don’t have main characters because each episod focuses on one problem of our society. More precisely it unveils the link that Mankind has with the technology of nowadays.

The series falls into two categories: Science fiction(sci-fi) and drama. Like its name, sci-fi is a genre which defines  a new world mostly futuristic where technology is advanced. The aim of sci-fi is to raise people’s awareness of the danger of, not technology itself, but the way which mankind uses it in society.

The drama part deals with  the human behaviour which in most cases is led by technology.  I chose one episode of the series that I liked when I watched it because it is really close to our contemporary society.

It is the first episode of season 3 called  “Nosedive”.

The main character Lacie Pound lives to please others. People are rated from 0 to 5 according to the population. The better you are rated, the better you have benefits. To set an example every district is ranked among your rate. A disctrict can be  reserved for people who have  a rate higher than 3.5.  Lacie has 4.2 out of 5.  For Lacie, it isn’t enough she wants to have 5. Her brother on the contrary scorns this system. Lacie is in admiration in front of  her friend Naomi who got 4.6.  She hires a consultant to coach her to get there,  in order to make sure that every interaction with another person is good enough to earn their 5.0 rating.

Lacie is searching a new appartment because she doesn’t want  to share it with her brother anymore due to his indignation. Unfortunately, she has  to get more than  4.5 to have a reduction of rent. When Naomi called her to be her maid of honor she sees here the perfect opportunity to soaring her rate. However on the way she makes mistakes that plummeting her rate to 2.8 and when she manages to arrive at the reception, Naomi doesn’t want her here anymore. The only reason for Naomi was to improve her own rate. Lacie, despite  Naomi’s warnings, comes into the place; she is totally drank and starts to speak freely, she is arrested and she sent to jail.

I have been completely shocked when I saw this episode because this situation could be closer to reality than we think. Indeed we have already all this system of likes and followers on social networks with Instagram and Facebook. People are mostly  interested in how much people  suscribe to them. This phenomenon could become a reality in a few years.


Sexism in Hollywood

February 4, 2018

On October 5, 2017, Hollywood was struck by the Harvey Weinstein’s scandal. Indeed, the famous movie producer was accused of allegations of harassment and sexual assaults. The case was related in The New York Times : he is said to have sexually harassed actresses, employees, models and interns.

In the wake of this revelation, some famous women opened up about their experiences. Ashley Judd, a famous actress, was harassed for 20 years ago  by Harvey Weinstein. He invited her to a hotel in Beverly Hills for what she thought was a breakfast meeting. When she arrived, he was wearing a bathrobe, and he asked her to give him a massage.

His defense message about what happened shocked the opinion. Indeed Harvey Weinstein said “ I came of age in the 60s and 70s, when all the rules about behaviour and workplaces were different. That was the culture then…I appreciate the way I’ve behaved with colleagues in the past has caused a lot of pain, and I sincerely apologize for it”.

Other actresses expressed themselves about this thorny situation. Tessa Thompson who plays the character of Valkyrie in the latest Thor said “It is time for us to excavate those things. Not just in Hollywood – to me, Hollywood is just a microcosm of what happens (in the world). In every workplace, women need to feel like they’re respected”.

She wants to expose that sexism is everywhere even in the Hollywood field, women suffer from being discriminated against because of their sex. They are for example less paid than men. For example, if we combine the salary of the 10 best paid men, the result is 415 million dollars. Yet, the result of the salary of the 10 best paid women is “only” 224 million dollars.

The scandal had an effect on the entire world. Indeed, before, most of the time the victims gave up their complaints because of a lack of evidence or being too afraid of the consequences. They used to feel like it is their fault and felt ashamed. That is why the guilt was not incriminated and could act again.

On social media, there are now some hashtags like #balancetonporc and #metoo. It highlights the fact taht women are no longer afraid to talk about this situation. It is not only a way to show that they shouldn’t feel ashamed, but also to say that they are not alone, in other words they are not an isolated case. Women can talk about daily sexism from harassment to sexual aggressions. Yet, these movements have also a seamy side. Indeed social media became a place for women to expose some sexist acts , which sometimes are not. Then it turns into men’s trials, and it is not a real justice. By contrast, women should go to the police in order to expose men in front of a court and not in front of every person on the web.

However some figures cannot be ignored, for example a test has been made on the Belgian population :

  • 13% of women asked have been victims of a rape
  • 25% of women asked have seen their partner imposed them sexual relations
  • 46% of people asked have been victims of at least one grave sexual violence such as rape or harassment.
  • 7% of women asked have been forced to have sexual relations with their superior.
  • 23% of women asked have been touched in public places




We can also talk about crimes against women in India:

  • there is a rape every 29 minutes
  • there is a molestation every 15 minutes
  • there is sexual harassment every 53 minutes
  • there is a murder every 16 minutes
  • there is a cruelty act every 9 minutes
  • there is a dowry death every 77 minutes

Some advertising campaigns are made nowadays to make people aware of sexual issues. Women have to realize that the consent is paramount in any situation and that they are not obliged to do anything if they do not want to. Their body belongs to them and no one, even someone they know and love, should force them. Men should respect women’s wish otherwise it turns into a rape.

Camille M.