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The Walt Disney History

December 13, 2017

Alice in Wonderland,Cinderella, Mickey all these legendary faces have marked our childhood but how was this company launched?

Beginning:

The company started in 1923 with two men: Walt and Roy Disney, two brothers. They produced short animated films called the Alice Comedies. This sucess allowed them to  spread and  to move to Burbank.

Disney created his first character known as Oswald the lucky rabbit, however Charles Mintz took the rights of Oswald from Walt Disney and claimed Oswald as an official Universal Studios character. Universal pictures  is an American film studio too. Following this event Mintz hired four of Disney’s  animators  to start his own animation studio.

They tried to find a way to replace Oswald.  Walter created a mouse named Mickey which will became a legendary character, a  mascot of the Disney company. Mickey officially begins  in the short film Steamboat Willie, one of the first  sound cartoons. He  appeared  in 130 productions of Disney.

In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and trees .

The success:

The movie Snow White and the seven Dwarfs was released in 1937. It became the highest-grossing film of that time by 1939. Using the profits from Snow White, Disney financed the construction of a new 51-acre (210,000 m2) studio in Burkank, California; the new Walt Disney studio in which the company is headquartered to this day,

SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS, producer Walt Disney, with models and sketches, 1937

The studio continued releasing animated films, such as Pinocchio(1940), Fantasia(1940), Dumbo (1941), and  Bambi (1942).

The slowing down of the compagny:  WWII

After World War II  box-office profits declined. When the United States entered the war after the attack of pearl Harbor many of Disney’s animators were enrolled into the armed forces. The U.S. and Canadian governments commissioned the studio to produce  propaganda movies.

In 1942, 90% of its 550 employees were working on war  films such as the Victory Through Air Power and Education for death. Both released in 1943, they were meant to  support  the war effort and raise people’s awareness.

Post War:

After the end of the war,the producers started to slowly produce short animation movies and then they tried to throw feature length animation again. The release of Cinderella in 1950 proved that feature-length animation could still succeed in the marketplace. Other movies were released: Alice in Wonderland (1951) and Peter Pan1953), both were in production before the war had begun.

In October 1954, the ABC network launched Disney’s first regular television series, Disneyland.This allowed Disney a platform to introduce new projects, and ABC became Disney’s partner in the financing and development of Disney. In 1954, Walt Disney used his Disneyland series to unveil what would become Disneyland: a place  where parents and children could both have fun at the same time. On July 18, 1955, Walt Disney opened Disneyland to the  public.

The death of Roy and Walter Disney:

Walt Disney died from  cancer in 1966, his brother Roy renamed “Disney World” as “Walt Disney World”. His two last movies were The Jungle Book and The Happiest Millionaire which were released in 1967. On December 20, 1971 Roy died of a stroke.  Walt Disney was never a rich man despite the success of Disney , because he valued perfection for his movies more than his profits. “I don’t make movies to make money,” he once said, “I make money so I can make more movies.” was Walt’s state of mind.

Donn Tatum, Card Walker  and Walt’s son-in-law Ron Millereach trained by Walt and Roy were at the head of the compagny after their deaths.

The 1990s were a hugely successful decade for the Disney Company. Animated films continued in 1994 with The Lion King, which soon became one of the highest-grossing films of all-time. It was followed by Pocahontas in 1995, The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1996, Hercules in 1997, Mulan in 1998, Tarzan in 1999

More recently movies such as  Finding DoryVaina, Vice Versa or Frozen have also been a great success for Disney.

The magic of these movies is that adults and children are used to watching them regardless of their ages. They keep watching the old and the recent Disney movies.

Manoa.

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Dynasty, the new Gossip Girl series?

December 1, 2017

Dynasty is an American prime time televison soap opera which is a reboot based on the 1980s series of the same name. The show is developed by Josh Schwartz ( co-creator, writer and executive producer of Gossip Girl, The Carrie Diaries...) and Stephanie Savage ( also writer , executive producer and co-creator of Gossip Girl…) and Sallie Patrick. The new series stars are Grant Show( Born to race, The girl next door…) as Blake Carrington , Nathalie Kelley ( the Vampire Diaries, Urban Explorer…) as his new wife Cristal Flores Carrington , Elizabeth Gillies ( iCarly, Victorious…) as Blake’s daughter Fallon, and James Mackay ( The Dressmaker, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales…) as his son Steven. Dynasty premiered on October 11, 2017 on  the CW Network in the United States , and on Netflix internationally a day later.

The CW Network. All Rights Reserved

The series begins with Fallon Carington , the heiress of the society which found her father engaged to Cristal , a rival employee at the family company.   She begins to plan the separation of the two lovebirds and it costs her a promotion. She decides to get allies with Jeff Colby , one of her friends and rivals of the company and get her own success. Meanwhile , Cristal’s nephew arrives and becomes romantically involved with Steven.  He threatens her to expose her shady past. The Carringtons form a united front in the wake of the suspicious death of Cristal’s former lover, but things at the mansion do not remain harmonious for long.

As the CW Network thought that it had been a long time since Gossip Girl had stopped and that no series had taken the lead of that kind of shows, they decided to take a chance with this reboot. With Josh Schwartz and Stephanie Savage we may be sure that we’ll find some interesting things in this show and we have to follow it closely!

Personally I have already started to watch the 4 first episodes and I still don’t know if I can call it a successor of GG. It is too soon to make any judgment and for now I feel like no one will ever equal Serena, Blair , Nate , Dan and Chuck’s story, but that is for sure that we can’t say never say never and by giving a chance to this series we might have good surprises.  So let’s wait for the first season and see.

Alexandra

“Purple drank”, the new teenagers drug?

November 29, 2017

For the past few months, a new trend has circulated among many young people. Indeed, since the overdose of Pauline, 16 years old, not a day goes  without media talking about those psychoactives. Is this a revolution of teenagers? Isn’t it also a projection of the bad situation of the society?

What is the “Purple Drank”?

The “Purple drank” is a mix of codeine cough syrup and Sprite. The name of this “cocktails”comes from the US, where it all began. Actually, it was called like that to introduce reference to the purple syrup which is all the US Rappers talk about.

It was popularized in the 90’s, when rap music began to be very influential. DJ Screw was one of the first rappers to dedicate a song to this drink. He was talking about the effects and also how it helped him to create a new music style : « screwed and chopped », where the sound is slowed. After that, in the 2000’s, most of those rappers talked about this “magic potion”in their songs , that influences  a lot teenagers all around the world.

More specifically , the term of “purpledrank” arrived in France in 2013. This cheap drug suits amateurs in demand of stronger sensations. Students, teenagers, adults consume this drug in calm parties, to be “relaxed and high”.
Howeover, in France, the purple syrup doesn’t exist; so you have to put some purple pigments inside your drink. Thus, they created a new recipe with the neo-codion syrup, seven up and pigment.

Incurred dangers and consequences

This “medecine” is extremely dangerous because of the lack of information of teenagers. They think that they are dealing with “just” a medecine and so that could not put them in poor health. For them,”this is not forbidden” and so this could not “kill them”. At the present time, we have numbered 5 intoxications among which 2 deaths. Unfortunately all of those victims were juvenile…

We can take the example of Pauline, 16 years old, who died on 2 May 2016 of an overdose of codeine. She was a brilliant student , in the scientific field, and apparently no problem in her life; just the classical malaise of teenagers. Her mother didn’t notice her daughter’s addiction, despite her knowledge in biology and medical field.
As a result, Pauline’s mother decided to take charge of this social phenomenon and fight against the democratization of drugs in general.
Almost 45.000 persons signed her petition to stop the sale of those over-the-counter products lawfully. Her wish  is to sensitize young people of adverse consequences of taking those syrups. Thankfully, on  12 July 2017, the Ministry of Health announced that medications that contain codein would be delivered necessarily with a prescription, in order to close the misuses of those products.

Howeover, do we have to decriminalize it?

The arrival of this polemic in our debates makes us realize the importance of taking part in this social phenomenon. Furthermore, it shows us the evolution under which the ban is circumvented.
In spite of the penalisation, this doesn’t stop the consumption of cannabis product. This is a kind of “legal ban” ,where the government is hypocritical in telling that depenalising cannabis would increase the consumption. Indeed, sanctions don’t arrest consumers, it rather amuses them to be”illegal”; and that is THE problem. We have to change our way of thinking.
First, we have to take in charge the education of children – in relation to pleasure,  abstinence – and accept that there will always be someone who wants to experiment, and be in conflict with the law.
Moreover, the government has to take in charge the commercialization of those products on Internet. As a matter of fact, the existence of webplatform of psychoactive consumers spurs non-consumers to become familiar with illegal products. But, il also helps to give information about the risks. Those web pages are the precursors of drug advances.

Margaux

The truth about the French Revolution

November 24, 2017

     The mystical Bastille day; 14th July 1789, the poor’s rebellion ;  since you are young that is the nice common story  you have been taught at school, on Tv, by your friends or parents.

Today is the day when all those clichés will be questioned and when I will explain why the French Revolution could be a complete fraud. It could have been all planified and contrary to what we believe, the main characters and leaders of that rebellion were aristocrats or bourgeois. Indeed they wanted more power by throwing out King Louis XVI.

To reach that goal they presented falsified doleances, one of them mentioned a cereal shortage. The King’s governement decided to ration food which increased the national anger. Though France was the most prosperous European country, the people thought hunger was looming and the population became rebellious. Then, guided by the bourgeois militia, the Parisians followed the path and after taking canons and weapons at the Tuileries, they arrived to the Bastille’s jail where were preserved ammunition and gunpowder.

Myth was maintained of courageous fighters whereas the edifice was only defended by a 100 soldiers 80 of them being invalids. People testified about that event like the French writer  Chateaubriand in his “Memoirs from Beyond the Grave”. He confides that the defenders of Revolution were paid afterwards if they attended the Bastille day to maintain the myth of brave revolutionaries that fought against oppression and starvation. But lots of people said they were present so as to get  paid.

Now, the demystification minute has come. Once they arrived in front of the edifice, it was only protected by invalids and a few soldiers. Besides, beyond the brave act of saving people injailed unfairly, what the population still does not know is that there were only 7 prisoners: 4 forgers, two madmen and a criminal. To make people believe in terrible conditions, a man: Count Lorges was paid to imitate a prisoner that would have been jailed for 32 years; he was found in a humid dungeon, half naked and with a lot of hair and a long bear. Anyway the seven real prisoners didn’t get their liberty back because they were really outlaws and dangerous.

According to some historians, the whole Revolution continued as a deep and selfish swindle. 

It is definitely something to muse on.

Candice

 

 

 

 

L’atelier du rêve : an amazing retrospective of Dior’s history

November 22, 2017

Today, I would like to tell you about a great and big exhibition that I saw in the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, which is celebrating the 70th anniversary of the creation of the House of Dior. During the visit, you are completely immersed in the universe of the famous designer and his successors (such as Yves St-Laurent, John Galliano, Raf Simons…). The exhibition insists on the abundant sources of inspiration which enabled Dior to develop a new style and to create so many clothes. Then, you discover the importance of art in his life, and the strong link that exists between art, history and fashion, which particulary interests me.

Christian Dior (1905-1957),  is now well-known all aroud the world as a symbol of French haute couture. But people often forget that before becoming a famous French designer, Dior had a previous life as a gallery owner, passionate above all abput beauty. Indeed, in 1928 he opened with a friend a gallery rue de la Boétie, which is the street in Paris where artists used to meet and send their works. Dior was a man of his time : he  was really close to the surrealist and cubist new artistic movements, which where so different from all that had been done before and marked the birth of modernism.  He lived among this new generation of musicians, poets, and painters, helping some of them to become famous such as Dali and Giacometti. He also rubbed shoulders with Picasso, Braque, Fernand Léger, André Breton, Marcel Duchamp, Matisse, René Magritte, Max Ernst, Miró… and had a close friendship with Jean Cocteau. In 1934, the consequences of the 1929 economic crisis forced him to bring an end to his career as a gallery owner, then he had a difficult period and finally went into fashion.

Dior produced his first collection in 1947, and it was immediatly a huge success all around the world. On this occasion he created the “New Look”, which is a new style which broke with the traditional fashion of the time. Indeed, during World War II women used to wear straight and strict outfits with bleak colours. They didn’t take care a lot over their appearance, because of the shortages and restrictions. Dior decided to put a stop to this dismal period by celebrating the woman’s body and her feminity. Then he created a new silhouette that he called “corolla” because for him a woman is like a flower. The main characteritics of this new silhouette are a slim waist and a baggy, long skirt with a lot of fabric. This new look shows the will of the society to enjoy life again, to have fun and above all to restore beauty in everyday life, after the end of the war. The woman  can seduce again. The famous “Bar dress” is representative of the New Look :

Dior was the first fashion designer to use professional photographs to promote his collections. He was also the first one to publish outdoor fashion photos. Dior always elaborated the forms of his clothes as if he were an architect, and choose the colors as if he were a painter. He considered fashion as a real art, which allowed him  to celebrate the beauty of the woman. After him, his successors continued to mix art and fashion :

The harlequin outfit directly inspired by the harlequin painted by Picasso. It was then very daring to create clothes with such big geometric forms.

They are also inspired by other cultures, such as Japenese or African culture

I definitely recommend you this exhibition !  I’m usually not very keen on fashion, but then I discovered the beautiful job of being a fashion designer. It is really moving to think that  a man created millions of beautiful and glamorous clothes to celebrate the beauty of women. I think Dior loved women very much. I wasn’t aware that Dior had created so many dresses for famous movie stars. When you see a fashion designer’s dress in real, you realize how much the fabric is thin, so well cut, with a lot of embroideries… Finally I changed my point of view : it is really a kind of art ! Dior’s works now belong to the French heritage. The exhibition is huge, there are more than 400 dresses, you just think it will never stop, it made me giddy !  But there were too many people and sometimes I found it hard to see the clothes very well or to take the time I would have needed.

Marianne

The independence of Cataluna

November 22, 2017

Over the last few days, the situation in Catalonia  tightened a lot. Indeed the escape of Carles Puidgemont, the president of the Catalan government, to Belgium has shown that the discussions between Catalonia and Madrid are neutral.

History of Cataluna 


The intention of an independence of Catalonia started in 1922 with the creation of the first independent Catalan  party by Francesc Macia, The Estat Catala, which tried to conquer the region with arms; the Catalans proceeded under the assumption that they were colonized by Spanish Bourbons in 1714 and so that’s why the Estat Catala tried to take Catalonia back. The party received help from the Latino countries so Macia decided to go to America Latina in 1928 to thank them for doing that. Then, the situation moved with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in April, 14th 1931: this system created the regional autonomies so Macia decided to give up his idea of an independence of Catalonia and created a Generalitat.

The Generalitat was destroyed in 1936 when Franco took  power in Spain; the region was retrieved and the Catalan was forbidden and some books or works were burnt. Four years after the end of this regim , in 1978, the Generalitat of Catalonia was re-established with the Spanish Constitution. In 2005, Catalonia suggested being granted a more autonomous status. The Spanish Government accepted it.

But the problems started in 2009 when the Government of Catalonia decided to organize an illegal referendum concerning the independence of the region : 1 million person voted and the “Yes” carried the day. Following this vote, tensions between the Spanish government and the Catalonia government appeared. Three years later, a huge demonstration was organized, 1.5 to 2 million persons participated in it in order to get the independence of Catalonia. But Mariano Rajoy, the president of the Spanish government refused to speak with them.

In January, 12th 2016 Carles Puidgemont was elected President of the Catalonia government : he wanted to accelerate the process of independence of Catalonia. Indeed, he organized on October, 1st 2017 an illegal referendum on independence; the police and the Guardia Civil tried to stop this referendum but things turned badly and violent. This is result of this referendum :

YES       NO      Blank Votes
90.18% 7.83% 1.99%

The problem is that only 43.03% person of people voted for this so it is not representative of the population.

Then on October 10th 2017 after the results, Puidgemont proclaimed during the night the independence of Catalonia but the day after he returned on his positions in order to further a dialogue with Madrid. Mariano Rajoy delivered a speech in which he asked Puidgemont to clarify the situation; he did and proclaimed the independence of Catalonia on 27th October. Madrid replied with the 155 article of the Constitution which explained that a President of an autonomous region can be destituted if he doesn’t respect his duty. Consequently, Puidgemont has been suspended from his function and his deputies too but the he ran away to Belgium because he normally has to go to prison and could be imprisoned for 30 years!

Why Cataluna wants to be indepedent?

First, Catalans consider that they only belong to Spain because they were colonized by them in 1714. But the main reason is an economic one. Indeed, Catalonia represents 18% of the Spanish GDP but they only receive 11% of the country’s investments so they have a deficit of 16 billion euros. In order to limit those deficits, the Catalan government voted a law in 2006 but the Populist Party, the first party in Spain, refused it. As a consequence, Catalans were dissatisfied and the mentalities changed and their wishes for independence began. Thus, they want independence to reduce their economic problems.

The situation in Catalonia is very strained because Rajoy asks for a new referendum and wants everybody to participate and he will fix the destiny of Catalonia according to it. Plus countries are worried about an independence because other regions, like Corsica, could ask for their own independence if Catalonia decided on it.

Bettina

Ireland: the devastating hurricane Ophelia

November 21, 2017

Hurricane Ophelia hit the South-West of Ireland on Monday, October 16. It is a post-tropical tempest and the country was under red alert because of the dangerousness of the strong gust of wind which struck the country.

The wind was over 148km/h that is huge and made the people afraid for their lives. As a consequence, the authoritises closed the schools, many public services, transports and they ordered people to stay at home and not try to get out. There were also many risks of floods, falling of trees and the inhabitants were without electricity. Furthermore, we can also say that it was a deadly hurricane because 3 people died due to the weather conditions. The former Atlantic hurricane downed trees and power lines, sent waves surging over coastal defenses and disrupted flights again on Tuesday, a day after making landfall on Ireland’s south coast with gusts of almost 148km per hour.

In the United Kingdom, Meteorological Offices placed  Northern Ireland in “orange alert”, the last but one level, being able to require for the population to protect itself against the consequences “potentially mortal” from planned weather conditions.
Sun and sky took an orange red tint on a large part of the country, including in London, because of the dust brought from Africa and Southern Europe by the storm.

Camille B.